Added: Keneshia Lucus - Date: 10.02.2022 06:06 - Views: 32630 - Clicks: 4327
It is, however, increasingly recognized that these « deficit » models may neglect the importance of the social, interpersonal and cultural factors that shape sexual behaviour among individuals and groups. This paper investigates the subjective reasons for unprotected sexual intercourse offered by young people in the Northern Province of South Africa.
Analysis of focus group discussions and longitudinal case studies completed with 10 mixed sex youth, has led to the identification of three common « ideologies » of sexual risk: concepts of male loss of control; youth being a life stage associated with play, fun and « irresponsible » behaviour; incompatibility between safer sex and interpersonal trust, intimacy and love.
The authors suggest that attention to the dynamic evolution of youth ideologies could do much to create a more meaningful dialogue between health promotion practitioners and the young people they serve. Indeed, older youth have been described as « the Lost Generation » in view of the fact that so many were involved in the struggle against the apartheid regime and had few opportunities for education, skills development and appropriate socialization Mkhondo, These young people should, of course, be among the most economically active members of society.
However, in practice, they have had little education, and many have been brought up in a climate of violence, broken families, poverty, and oppression. HIV has already infected more than 4 million South Africans and the pandemic is sometimes described as the new « enemy » against which South Africans must struggle 3. Once again, young people, and especially young women, appear to be amongst the most vulnerable sectors of the population. It is estimated that 4 million episodes of sexually transmitted diseases STDs occur each year in South Africa, with a substantial proportion of these infections occurring among adolescents and young adults.
Meanwhile, the onset of sexual activity has become progressively earlier, with many South Africans become sexually active at 13 or 14 years Richter L. Whilst a of initiatives focus on improving access to clinical services, the vast majority focus on health promotion and prevention through behaviour change RSA, Of increasing concern, however, is that very few initiatives and strategies appear to be adequately informed by theory Kelly, These perspectives have implicitly informed the de of a multiplicity of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices KAP surveys 4.
These surveys are invariably used as instruments for programme monitoring and evaluation, yet they tend to focus disproportionately on discrete, objectively constructed « negative » indicators of deficit. Ideologies can be defined as collectively constructed, shared belief systems for describing and explaining the world. They are potentially pluralized within one culture and tend to be linked to historically situated groups that actively create and recreate them in the practices of daily life Bourdieu, It is argued that an understanding of such ideologies is necessary if we are to support young people within the particular social environments that shape and regulate their sexual activity.
The aim of AHP was to research and develop strategies for improving the quality of adolescent reproductive health services in the Northern Province of South Africa. The programme was operational in three areas of the Northern Province, namely Bushbuckridge, Sekhukhuneland and Naphuno. All discussions were completed in the dominant language of the area i. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and translated into English for analysis.
In these discussions, standardized drama and diagramming techniques were used to generate discussion on key aspects of sexual and reproductive health. These group discussions were more informal and were deed to provide a rapid assessment of youth perspectives prior to the instigation of local action research initiatives. Participants were encouraged to make extensive notes on the charts they created, whilst the facilitator noted key fragments of dialogue and ificant group dynamics.
In the course of the discussion, participants compared male and female sexuality and other key aspects of sexual and reproductive health. When a guy has sex, he becomes confused. He has a lot of feelings that affect his mind… His voice changes and he seems to be whispering. He must find himself a woman at that time. When a man produces sperm during sexhe becomes a little mad. You will see that he sweats a lot and the penis becomes erect, but he becomes strong.
Indeed, some participants expressed a real sense of urgency. For example, a male participant from Naphuno said:. Indeed, sexual desire was considered to stem from the need to drain this increased volume of blood from the body. Semen and vaginal secretions were believed to be « blood that has is hot » whilst, during sexual intercourse, the « blood » of a woman and a man were said to be exchanged or mixed together. What I am saying is that when you are fifteen your feelings can rise up and you will be ready to sleep with the girl.
You cannot wait until you are 20 years old.
It may be possible, but it will be very difficult. Your blood rises and you go and look for a girl to drain this from your body. His blood will be shaking and he longs for things Male, age set: Bushbuckridge …. Drainage of blood was thus seen as necessary for the well being of the individual. Indeed, the onset of menstruation appeared to influence the way a young woman perceived herself and was perceived by others. Young women from Bushbuckridge elaborated this theme further:. Her blood will tell her how to act… she will start to « tune » herself make herself look goodand wash herself.
At sixteen she will know how to wash herself… so that boys can see her. She will think she is old enough for sex once she begins to menstruate.
Nevertheless, several females did refer to how male loss of control made them feel. Indeed, being desired with overwhelming passion seemed to cause some young women feel relatively powerful. For example, a female participant from Bushbuckridge commented:. We know a man becomes mentally affected and confused, especially when he meets a young woman he loves, then he becomes erect. At that time, he really needs a woman.
Yet, ironically, these pleasurable feelings might also persuade some young women to relinquish control over sexual encounters » Giddens, It is also notable that none of the socially shared and constructed explanations elicited alluded to a perception of personal deficit or problems of deviant, risky or « lacking » individuals. Rather, loss of control and affirmation of personhood through sexual desire are presented as true, as the norm, and even as desirable. The statements below illustrate this ideology particularly clearly. For example, a schoolboy from Bushbuckridge suggested that:.
It is good to start having sex at 16 years because you will have time to jol play, have fun before marriage. Here, jolling is associated with recreational sex and other recreational activities such as going out, dancing and drinking. As such, jolling is regarded as youthful activity and is differentiated from the legitimate sexual relations that take place within marriage.
Indeed, in focus group discussions, recreational play was frequently contrasted with romantic « true love » relationships, in terms of levels of responsibility and expectations.
For example, youth who had never discussed contraception with a sexual partner were asked to explain why. A young man from Naphuno said:. We are young. We have no tongues for talk. We only have tongues for sex! Although, as we have seen, sexual contact was sometimes seen in terms of « play », it was also associated with powerful emotions. It is notable from the diary extracts below that love and desire may be intensely felt. For example, a young man from Bushbuckridge wrote:.
I love her from the bottom of my heart to the depths of my soul. I really love her. I need her from the bottom of my heart to the depths of my soul. But I need to see him. Within this context, condoms were frequently perceived as disrupting intimacy. For example, a young man from Sekhukhuneland explained:. Once again, then, ideology and in this case, shared, idealized notions of romantic relationships can limit the agency of the individual. In part, this may be due to shared ideologies that inform sexual activity and militate against safer sexual practices.
It seems these ideologies may have particular potency when they reinforce prevailing structural power relations, such as those pertaining to gender. They are an attempt to situate beliefs within the broader the social and cultural systems that give meaning to, and regulate, sexual practice.
These ideologies should not be interpreted simplistically as « causes » for unprotected sex; rather they are windows offering insights into the socially shared meanings and subjective experiences of young people. Rather, they are situated within an « ideological continuum » — a continuum that is dialectically embedded in the social environment. It is notable that during the s and early s, youth « Comrades » of the Northern Province were actively involved in the liberation struggle. This experience continues to have implications for the way youth are perceived with respect to authority and power in domestic and public domains.
Even more ificantly, this struggle became a vehicle for « sexual liberation » wherein resistance to sexual exploitation of young girls by teachers and demands for greater sexual freedom for youth found expression. During this time the impregnation of young girls was seen to be a practical reproductive act to create Comrades for the liberation struggle Niehaus, Attawell K.
Bourdieu P. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Diaz R. Giddens A. Cambridge UKPolity Press. Kelly K. Mkhondo R. Niehaus I. Rees H. The Male Involvement Project. Richter L. RSA,Passionate discrete fun
email: [email protected] - phone:(373) 193-1344 x 4572
9 Online Dating Scams to Avoid