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Includes index. For secondary school students. ISBN 0 8. Science - Textbooks. Whalley, Kerry. Rate and yield 5. The Age: figure 2. Article can be found on his website : p. Andrea Simonato: figure SF 9. NASA: figures 5. Auscape: figures 7. Newspix: Anthony Weate, p. Australian Associated Press: figure 1. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation: figure 8.
Australian Picture Library: figures 4. Rogers, figure 2. Bergman, figure 6. Blackmagic De: figure 3. CSIRO: figures 4. Baghurst et al. David Heffernan: figures 3. Dorling Kindersley: p. Pearson Education Australia: Ben Killingsworth, figures 1. The Picture Source: figure 2. South Australian Museum: figure 7. Fairfax Images: figures 5. Getty Images: p. Greg Rickard: figure 2. Jim Bowler: figures SF 7. However, if any infringement has occurred, the publishers tender their apologies and invite copyright owners to contact them.
It includes material that addresses the learning outcomes in the domains of knowledge, understanding and skills. Each chapter addresses at least one prescribed focus area in detail. The content is presented through many varied contexts to engage students in seeing the relationship between science and their everyday lives.
By learning from the Science Focus series students will become confident, creative, responsible and scientifically literate members of society. Coursebook The coursebook consists of nine chapters with the following features. Student activities on these s allow further investigation and exploration of the material covered.
Each unit ends with a set of questions. The extension questions can be set for further exploration and asment work and include a variety of structured tasks including research, creative writing and internet activities suitable for all students. Extension questions cater for a range of learning styles using the multiple intelligences approach, and may be used for extending more able students. Practical activities follow the questions. These are placed at the end of the unit to allow teachers to choose when and how to best incorporate the Prac 1 Unit 1.
Cross references to practical activities within DYO the units al suggested points for practical work. Chapter review questions follow the last unit in each chapter. These cover all chapter outcomes in a variety of question styles to provide opportunities for all students to consolidate new knowledge and skills. The use of the Aboriginal flag in the coursebook denotes material that is included to cover Aboriginal perspectives in science.
Companion Website The Companion Website contains a wealth of support material for students and teachers, which has been written to enhance the content covered in the coursebook. Destinations A list of reviewed websites is available— these relate directly to chapter content for students to access.
Interactive activities These are activities that apply and review concepts covered in the chapters.
Homework Book The Homework Book provides a structured program to complement the coursebook. Worksheet 2. Worksheet 4. Chapters may also include information on other Prescribed Focus Areas. If so, how? A colour change or release of heat are s that a chemical change is probably taking place.
Chemical reactions can be very simple or highly complex. It is easy to record going any further. It is essential that you can write correct chemical formulas, or none of your equations will be correct. Chemical equations can be written as either word equations or balanced formula equations. By now you should be able to write the symbols for many elements and the chemical formulas of many common compounds. The easiest way to represent reactions is to use chemical equations. Fig 1. Fe, O2 and S6. Positive ions are formed when metal atoms lose electrons, e.
Negative ions are formed when nonmetal atoms gain electrons, e. Cl—, S2— and N3—. For carbon dioxide CO2a molecule consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms covalently bonded together. This molecular formula represents the and type of atoms in the compound. Elements that exist as diatomic molecules are the gases hydrogen H2oxygen O2nitrogen N2fluorine F2 and chlorine Cl2the liquid bromine Br2and solid iodine I2. The bends When we breathe, oxygen O2 in the air is absorbed and dissolved into our blood and used for respiration.
Nitrogen N2 is also absorbed and dissolved, but is not used. Divers often use a mix of compressed oxygen O2 and helium Heto remove much of the problem of nitrogen bubbles. It allows a diver to come to the surface twenty times faster than with compressed air. Ionic compounds are crystalline solids, unless dissolved in water as an aqueous solution. Instead the formula shows the ratio of ions in the crystal. For example, the ionic compound magnesium oxide has the formula MgO. A small crystal may contain a thousand magnesium ions and a thousand oxide ions, while a larger crystal may contain a million magnesium ions and a million oxide ions.
Either way, the formula is simply MgO. Worksheet 1. But does each 2 mean the same thing? These show how many of that type of atom or ion are in the formula. If there is no subscript after an atom or ion, it means there is only one of that atom or ion in the formula. Brackets with more subscript s simply multiply everything inside. The brackets indicate that overall there are 2 hydrogen H atoms and 2 oxygen O atoms.
The brackets indicate overall that there are 3 sulfur S atoms and 12 oxygen O atoms. You cannot fiddle with or change subscript s. These s are determined by the place of each element in the periodic table. If you change subscript s then you are actually inventing new chemicals!
Water H2Ofor example, is the safe liquid we drink and wash in. H2O2 is also a clear and colourless liquid but is a very strong corrosive bleach called hydrogen peroxide. See what happens if you fiddle Prac 1 p.
The larger s in front of formulas indicate how much of each chemical is being used and how much is being produced in the reaction. These are the s we can fiddle with to balance an equation. This means that there must be the same of each type of atom on each side of the equation.
The atoms UNIT 1. To show space o Apoll cells used in the this we will use another missions produced pure water as a by-product. The astronauts example. They show how many of each type of atom are present. However, while there is only one hydrogen atom on the left, there are two on the right.
These can be balanced by doubling the amount of HCl we use. What do the s in chemical equations mean?
When an equation is balanced, the mass of the products is equal to the mass of the reactants. Nothing has been destroyed and nothing new has been created. All the atoms have just been rearranged. Sodium Na : Two on the left, but only one on the right. This would have solved the oxygen problem, but it would have unbalanced the s of sodium and carbon. No balancing required.
Sometimes a bit of trial and error is required before you successfully balance an equation.
Are they solid or liquid, a gas or dissolved in water? In order to complete the picture of the reaction, we use more subscripts to indicate the physical states of the reactants and products. These were briefly introduced in Chapter 2 of Science Focus 3. Calcium oxide quicklime produces an intense white light when it is burnt and so was used as an early spotlight in theatres. Two atoms of solid calcium react with one molecule of gaseous oxygen, producing two solid calcium oxide ion clusters.
This gives a lot more information than before. From this point on, try to write all your chemical equations The fall of Rome including state subscripts. Lead poisoning probably played a ificant part Unless told otherwise, you in the fall of the Roman should always write the states of Empire.
Infertility was reactants and products as they caused by drinking wine from leaden vessels. Cosmetics 1 atmosphere pressure. State the name of each part. Balancing chemical equations 4 State the Law of Conservation of Matter. Which state are we in? Identify the correct ionic formula for calcium chloride. Construct the formula for each of these substances at SLC, including the appropriate state: aqlsg. Include any missing states. A glowing splint held at the top of the test tube re-lit, proving that oxygen gas was also produced.
A fine black solid, copper II oxide, was left in the test tube.
Analyse 22 David added some dilute hydrochloric acid to some solid limestone calcium carbonate in a beaker. When he weighed the products after the bubbling had stopped, he noticed that there had been a reduction in mass.Reiki master looking for partner Temora
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